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WOW Certified Web Administrator Apprentice (CWAA-apprentice)

Program Overview

Based on research of industry needs and competencies and skill sets identified as essential for Web technology workers, WOW has designed the following guidelines and learning objectives as a foundation for those pursuing knowledge, experience, and/or careers as Web Administrators and or Webmasters. After reviewing the CWAA-apprentice guidelines and confirming knowledge in these areas, individuals may take the WOW Certified Web Administrator Apprentice Certification Exam.


The WOW Certified Web Administrator Apprentice (CWAA-apprentice) examination measures fundamental competencies for aspiring or practicing Web Developers. The examinee must demonstrate knowledge of Internet Basics, Network Basics, HTML, CSS, Virtualization and infrastructure basics, Security basics, and Web Project Management at the standard defined by this test specification. The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from an industry-wide and worldwide job task analysis which was validated through a survey of hundreds of administrators. The results of the survey were used in weighting the domains and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of that content to the job requirements of a WOW Certified Professional Web Administrator. The intent is to certify individuals in a body of knowledge that is identified and accepted as the baseline or foundation of any Web Administrator.

The exam contains 70 questions. Examinees have 60 minutes to complete the exam. The exam is currently only available in English and available online.

NOTE: This examination blueprint for the WOW CWAA-apprentice examination includes the weighting, test objectives, and example topics. Example topics and concepts are included to clarify the test topics and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of all the content of this examination.

The table below lists the domains measured by this examination and the extent to which they are represented in the examination.

Topics of the exam include:

Domain % Of Examination
Internet Basics 10%
Networking Basics 25%
HTML 15%
CSS 15%
Virtualization and Infrastructure 20%
Security 10%
Web Project Management 5%
TOTAL 100%

Examination Description

The examinee selects, from four (4) or more response options, the option(s) that best complete(s) the statement or answer(s) the question. Distracters or wrong answers are response options that examinees with incomplete knowledge or skill would likely choose, but are generally plausible responses fitting into the content area. Test item formats used in this examination are:

Multiple-choice: The examinee selects one option that best answers the question or completes a statement.

Multiple-response: The examinee selects more than one option that best answers the question or completes a statement.

Sample Directions: Read the statement or question and, from the response options, select only the option(s) that represent(s) the most correct or best answer(s).

Content may include the following. Below is a list of topics for each course objective.

Examination Domains and Topics

  1. Internet Basics
    Content may include the following:

    • eMail fundamentals
    • IP addressing (IPv4 and V6)
    • Browser layout engine differences
    • Search Engine Optimization
    • How to use search engines
    • Absolute vs. relative URL
    • Domain registration and DNS
    • Site hosting
    • File naming conventions (including case sensitive names)
    • Protocols (TCP/IP, FTP/ sFTP, http/ htps)
    • Sitemap
    • Code validation
    • Captcha
  2. Networking Basics
    Content may include the following:

    • Types of networks (LAN, WAN, VPN, SAN)
    • Network standards (TCP, IP, OSI model)
    • Network topologies
    • Network terminology (NIC, server, client, hub switch, gateway, bridge, router)
    • Firewalls and network security
  3. HTML
    Content may include the following:

    • HTML elements and attributes (including comments and proper coding techniques)
    • Deprecated HTML elements and attributes
    • HTML coding fundamentals (paragraphs, headings, quotes, entities and related)
    • Differences between head and body tags
    • Links and anchors
    • Data tables
    • iFrames
    • Forms (including Get vs. Post) and data validation
    • Lists
    • Semantic markup
    • History of HTML
    • Presentation vs. content
    • Images
    • File Paths
    • Information architecture
  4. CSS
    Content may include the following:

    • CSS syntax
    • Selectors, properties, values
    • CSS transitions
    • CSS transforms
    • CSS animation
    • Pseudo-classes
    • Pseudo-behaviors
    • Media queries and breakpoints
    • Responsive design techniques
    • Box model
    • Colors, backgrounds, borders
    • Specificity
    • Cascade
    • CSS units
    • Fonts and font families
    • Positioning
    • Gradients
    • Flexbox and Grid
    • CSS variables and mix-ins
    • CSS Post-Processors (LESS, SASS)
  5. Virtualization and Infrastructure
    Content may include the following:

    • Containers
    • Virtual machines
    • CDN
    • Partitions
    • System policies
    • Fault tolerance and risk management
    • Partitions
  6. Security
    Content may include the following:

    • Preventing injection attacks
    • Avoiding broken authorization
    • Avoiding sensitive data exposure
    • Avoiding broken access controls
    • Preventing security mis-configuration
    • Avoiding cross site scripting attacks
    • Providing sufficient logging and monitoring
    • Providing backup and recovery
    • Anti-malware
    • Firewalls
    • DOS and DDOS
    • SPAM
  7. Web Project Management
    Content may include the following:

    • Project management, program management, portfolio management
    • Code commenting and documentation
    • Scope (and scope creep)
    • Time management
    • Cost management
    • Risk management
    • Communication management
    • Version control and change management (including Git)
    • Backups
    • Website planning
    • Site goals and target audience
    • Communicating expected outcomes (site maps, wireframes, style tiles, mood boards)
    • Releases (model, location, media)
    • Requirements
    • Local vs. remote vs. testing servers
    • Deliverables and supporting materials
    • Post-mortem/ retrospectives after project completed